Extension and installation of oil and gas lines
Pipeline system of pipes that carry some kinds of materials for long distances. Pipelines play an important role in the work and economy of modern societies. The pipeline carries most of the water used in homes and industrial works, the transportation of natural gas and oil, and petroleum products such as petroleum, paraffin and diesel fuel. The pipeline is used to carry waste, waste water, coal pellets, iron ore and limestone all used for industrial purposes.
Many pipelines consist of a group of steel pipes connected together by welding. However, many gas and water pipelines are made from plastic materials, such as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride, and pipelines are also made of aluminum, concrete, iron, or a combination of asbestos and cement. Water pipelines are often constructed in the form of parts that are connected together by special connections installed with water-proofing sensors or seal valves that prevent water and gas intrusion.
The pipeline may be over 4,800 km long. Pipeline diameters range from 5 centimeters to 5 meters. Underground pipelines are buried about a meter away, while others are laid on the surface of the earth or placed on top of the roof. Some pipelines run underwater or across deserts, over mountains or under rivers and lakes. Pipelines are considered to be the most efficient means of transport, transporting large amounts of materials through direct flow from source to consumer. A 1,000 km long pipeline with a diameter of 100 cm can transport about 1 million barrels of oil a day. Despite the high cost of pipeline construction, it is relatively cheap for operation and maintenance. Pipelines are used to distribute fuel for energy production, mainly oil and its products, and natural gas more than any other means.